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Boxing requires very high levels of aerobic and aerobic fitness, as well as the ability to duck and weave at speed.
Aerobic exercise or cardio is exercise that your body can complete by using the oxygen it extracts from the air through breathing (hence air-obic). It is of lower intensity and longer duration (ten minutes or more). Jogging, swimming, and cycling on flat roads (but not racing for any of these) are examples of aerobic exercise. Aerobic fitness is commonly measured by some form of running - for example a Bronco or a beep test. Elite level boxers reach level 14 in a beep test (and maybe as high as level 17).
Anaerobic exercise is high intensity and of short duration (seconds or maybe a couple of minutes). The key chemical needed for muscle contraction is ATP, and anaerobic pathways are recruited when insufficient ATP can be produced aerobically (i.e when you can't take in enough oxygen). Anaerobic exercise produces lactate When your heart rate increases to 90% of its maximum you are exercising anaerobically as well as aerobically. Anaerobic exercise can't be sustained for long, although it can be sustained for longer with training. Anaerobic fitness improves with practice - high intensity interval training is a good way of doing this.
In simple terms, fitness training in boxing aims to increase your aerobic fitness, so it takes longer for your heart rate to increase to 90% of maximum (and it drops from this more rapidly), and to increase your anaerobic fitness so you can sustain bursts of high intensity for longer and without losing punching power.
Speed in boxing is not about sprinting. Boxers don't run away. It is much more about acceleration - the ability to move short distances quickly. Fast press-ups, fast skipping, and shadow boxing carrying a light weight are examples of speed exercises.
The aim is to ‘float like a butterfly’ (Muhammad Ali). Agility training in boxing aims to improve your ability to change direction without slowing down. These can be ladder drills or plyometrics